Electronically Stored Information, often referred to as ESI, is the legal term used to describe any data or documents created, manipulated, communicated, stored or best utilized in electronic form. This term is very broad by design as technological change can outpace the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) which govern civil proceedings in the United States district courts.  The purpose of the FRCP is to secure the "just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding." 

As we sit at the cusp of the newest Information Era with the adoption of Artificial Intelligence, we must recognize it is our storehouses of existing ESI which will feed generative A.I. This course, consumed either stand-alone or as the launch pin of the ESI Valuation series, provides a solid foundation for the building block of better ESI Awareness.

Given the widespread existence of ESI in our personal and professional lives, every single person can benefit from the historical perspective of where we started, in relationship to ESI, to understand the design behind the principle of interpreting the landscape of Electronically Stored Information which is continually evolving, shifting, and expanding.

Course Key Concepts: Electronically Stored Information (ESI), Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP), Enron, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), History of Electronically Stored Information (History of ESI).

Learning Objectives
  • Discover how the term Electronically Stored Information evolved and the purpose of its “broad-by-design” taxonomy.
  • Recognize the intentional shift of relying on a “defined” term, which can become outdated with change, to relying on a point-in-time “interpretation” to create a current, more relevant definition.
  • Explore the history of electronically stored information (ESI).
  • Recognize how the knowledge of past ESI evolution is the critical first step to mapping future evolutions in the ESI landscape to better understand the fluctuating value of various types of electronically stored information.
  • Discover and learn, at a high-level, the steps for adopting amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
  • Discover two silver linings of the Enron scandal.
Last updated/reviewed: March 6, 2024
1 Review (1 rating)


Member's Profile
Good course, novel material for an auditor. Presentation was thoughtful and concise.

Course Complexity: Foundational

No advanced preparation or prerequisites are required for this course.

Education Provider Information
Company: Illumeo, Inc., 75 East Santa Clara St., Suite 1215, San Jose, CA 95113
Contact: For more information regarding this course, including complaint and cancellation policies, please contact our offices at (408) 400- 3993 or send an e-mail to .
Instructor for this course
Course Syllabus
  Introduction to How Electronically Stored Information Changed Everything2:30
  Evolution of Electronically Stored Information14:40
  ENRON Scandal and Lesson Learned11:34
  History of ESI13:50
  Electronic Discovery Reference Model8:58
  Principles for Digital Forensics and E-Discovery14:58
  Course Review5:40
  How Electronically Stored Information Changed Everything1:12:10
  Slides: How Electronically Stored Information Changed EverythingPDF
  How Electronically Stored Information Changed Everything Glossary/ IndexPDF